The Southern Highlands region is the uppermost catchment of the Rufiji River. The TEEBAgriFood study will be undertaken in the following administrative districts: Mufindi (in Iringa Region); Njombe, Makete and Wanging’ombe (in Njombe Region); and Mbeya Rural and Mbarali (in Mbeya Region). These districts form the upper catchment areas of the Great Ruaha and Kilombero Rivers. These areas are characterized by mountain grasslands, woodlots, planted and natural forests, and farmland. Within these southern highlands lie three “clusters” of the public-private SAGCOT initiative (Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania) where the connection between resource conservation and food production is especially clear. The mountain parts of these highlands furnish freshwater for much of the region’s agriculture, while the swampy waterways of the Ihefu and Kilombero floodplains provide important opportunities for irrigation agriculture as well as habitats for aquatic life and important fishery grounds.