The Second International Conference of Development Studies is a multi and inter-disciplinary conference organised by IDS-UDSM in collaboration with the Tanzania Development Studies Association (TDSA) and its members – University of Dodoma, Mzumbe University, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, and Sokoine University of Agriculture. The conference offers an avenue for debating and augmenting diverse development issues toward achieving sustainable development. We, therefore, welcome abstracts based on one or more of the following sub-themes: